Managing and Treating Insomnia

Learn about what causes insomnia, the different types of insomnia, and the treatment options available to manage insomnia.
6 Minute Read


  • Insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder affecting 10-30% of adults globally, characterised by difficulties in falling asleep, staying asleep, or experiencing restorative sleep.
  • In Australia, approximately 1 in 3 Australians experience mild to moderate insomnia, with an estimated 10% suffering from severe symptoms, resulting in an economic burden of over $5 billion annually.
  • Insomnia can stem from various factors, including stress, anxiety, chronic pain, irregular sleep schedules, and more.
  • Types of insomnia include Sleep Onset Insomnia, Sleep Maintenance Insomnia, Early Morning Awakening Insomnia, and Non-Restorative Sleep, each with unique characteristics.
  • Treatment options range from Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) and medications to holistic approaches like mindfulness practices, exercise, and natural remedies.


Insomnia stands as a widespread sleep disorder with significant implications for individuals worldwide. It is a condition marked by persistent difficulties in initiating or maintaining sleep, leading to non-restorative sleep and impaired daytime functioning. This comprehensive article aims to delve into the multifaceted nature of insomnia, addressing its prevalence, etiological factors, diagnostic criteria, treatment options, and the specific challenges encountered by various population groups.

Prevalence of Insomnia

Insomnia is a global health concern, affecting a substantial portion of the population across different countries. While precise statistics may vary, research indicates that approximately 10-30% of adults experience symptoms of insomnia, with transient episodes being more common than chronic forms. The high prevalence of insomnia underscores the importance of understanding and addressing this sleep disorder within the healthcare system.

Insomnia in Australia: Statistics

Australia is not immune to the impact of insomnia. Recent statistics reveal that approximately 1 in 3 Australians experience mild to moderate insomnia, with around 10% suffering from severe insomnia symptoms. The economic burden of insomnia in Australia is estimated to be over $5 billion annually, considering healthcare costs and lost productivity.

Causes and Triggers

Insomnia can manifest as a result of various factors, including psychological, physiological, and environmental elements. Stress, anxiety, and depression are common psychological contributors to insomnia, disrupting the normal sleep-wake cycle. Physiological factors such as chronic pain, medical conditions, and hormonal imbalances can also lead to sleep disturbances. Furthermore, environmental factors such as irregular sleep schedules and excessive screen time before bedtime can exacerbate insomnia symptoms. Recognizing the diverse range of causes and triggers is crucial for tailoring effective interventions.

Types of Insomnia

Insomnia is not a one-size-fits-all condition; it presents in different forms, each with its unique characteristics. The main types of insomnia include:

  1. Sleep Onset Insomnia: Individuals with this type of insomnia struggle to fall asleep at the beginning of the night, often lying awake for an extended period before achieving sleep.
  2. Sleep Maintenance Insomnia: This form of insomnia involves waking up multiple times during the night and experiencing difficulties in returning to sleep.
  3. Early Morning Awakening Insomnia: People with this type of insomnia tend to wake up very early in the morning and find it challenging to go back to sleep, resulting in insufficient sleep duration.
  4. Non-Restorative Sleep: In this subtype, individuals may sleep through the night but wake up feeling unrefreshed and fatigued, as if they haven't slept at all.

Table 1: Stages of Insomnia

Types of Insomnia
Type of Insomnia Characteristics
Sleep Onset Insomnia Difficulty in falling asleep at the beginning of the night, often lying awake for an extended period.
Sleep Maintenance Insomnia Waking up multiple times during the night and experiencing difficulties in returning to sleep.
Early Morning Awakening Insomnia Waking up very early in the morning and finding it challenging to go back to sleep, resulting in insufficient sleep duration.
Non-Restorative Sleep Sleeping through the night but waking up feeling unrefreshed and fatigued, as if they haven't slept at all.

Stages of Sleep

Sleep is divided into several stages, including non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. NREM sleep consists of four stages, with the fourth stage (NREM-4) being the deepest and most restorative. REM sleep is associated with vivid dreaming. The sleep cycle involves transitioning between these stages throughout the night, with REM sleep occurring more frequently in the later part of the night.

Table 2: Stages of Sleep

Stages of Sleep
Stage of Sleep Characteristics
NREM-1 Light sleep, transitioning from wakefulness to sleep.
NREM-2 Deeper sleep, body temperature drops, heart rate slows.
NREM-3 Deep sleep, restorative, difficult to awaken from.
NREM-4 Deepest sleep stage, essential for physical renewal.
REM Rapid Eye Movement, associated with vivid dreaming.

Conventional Treatments

Conventional treatments for insomnia include:

  1. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I): CBT-I is considered the gold standard for treating insomnia. It focuses on changing sleep-related behaviours and thought patterns through techniques such as sleep restriction and stimulus control.
  2. Medications: Sedative-hypnotic medications may be prescribed for short-term relief of insomnia symptoms. These include benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepines. However, their use is typically limited due to potential side effects and the risk of dependency.
  3. Lifestyle Modifications: Adopting healthy sleep hygiene practices, such as maintaining a regular sleep schedule, creating a comfortable sleep environment, and limiting caffeine and alcohol intake, can improve sleep quality.

Holistic Approaches: Nurturing Sleep and Well-Being

Holistic approaches to insomnia emphasise the interconnectedness of physical and mental well-being. These approaches include:

  1. Mindfulness Practices: Techniques such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and meditation can help individuals develop awareness of their sleep patterns and reduce sleep-related anxiety.
  2. Regular Exercise: Engaging in regular physical activity promotes overall health and can contribute to better sleep quality.
  3. Social Support Networks: Connecting with others who have experienced similar sleep challenges can provide a sense of belonging and understanding, reducing the emotional burden of insomnia.
  4. Natural Remedies: Certain herbs and supplements, such as valerian root and melatonin, are explored as potential adjuncts to conventional treatments. These natural interventions aim to alleviate insomnia symptoms.

Barriers to Treatment

Barriers to seeking treatment for insomnia can hinder individuals from addressing their sleep difficulties effectively. These barriers include:

Stigma Surrounding Mental Health

Insomnia, like many other mental health conditions, is often stigmatised in society. People may feel embarrassed or ashamed to admit they have trouble sleeping, leading to delayed or avoided treatment seeking. Reducing the stigma associated with insomnia is crucial to encouraging individuals to seek help without fear of judgment.

Limited Access to Specialised Sleep Clinics

In remote or underserved areas of Australia, access to specialised sleep clinics and healthcare facilities may be limited. This lack of access can prevent individuals from receiving a proper diagnosis and tailored treatment plans. Telemedicine and telehealth initiatives are increasingly being employed to bridge this gap, allowing individuals to access sleep specialists remotely.

Lack of Awareness

Many individuals may not be fully aware of the available interventions and treatments for insomnia. This lack of awareness can result in delayed treatment seeking and prolonged suffering. Public health campaigns, educational programs, and outreach efforts can play a pivotal role in disseminating information about insomnia and its management.

Overcoming these barriers is essential to ensuring that individuals with insomnia receive the support they need and can embark on a journey towards better sleep and improved quality of life.

Prevention and Awareness

Raising awareness about insomnia and its potential consequences is a crucial step in prevention and early intervention. This can be achieved through various means:

Public Education

Educating the general public about healthy sleep habits and the significance of quality sleep is essential. Schools, workplaces, and community organisations can play a role in promoting sleep hygiene and the importance of seeking help for sleep disturbances.

Healthcare Professional Training

Healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, should receive training in recognising and addressing sleep disorders like insomnia. This can lead to more accurate diagnoses and timely interventions.

Reducing Stigma

Efforts to reduce the stigma associated with insomnia and mental health conditions, in general, can create a more supportive environment for individuals to openly discuss their sleep problems and seek help.

By increasing awareness and promoting early intervention, we can mitigate the impact of insomnia on individuals' lives and prevent it from escalating into a more severe and chronic condition.


Insomnia is a widespread and complex sleep disorder that affects numerous individuals, including a significant portion of Australians. Recognizing its prevalence and understanding its various forms, stages of sleep, and treatment options are essential steps in addressing this challenge. Conventional treatments, such as cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), medications, and sleep hygiene practices, offer effective ways to manage insomnia. However, holistic approaches, including mindfulness, exercise, and social support, are gaining recognition for their potential to complement traditional treatments. Despite the availability of treatments, barriers to seeking help for insomnia persist, including stigma and limited access to specialised clinics. To combat these barriers, promoting awareness and educating the public, healthcare professionals, and schools about healthy sleep habits and available interventions are crucial. In conclusion, insomnia is a multifaceted condition that warrants comprehensive understanding and intervention. By addressing its types, stages, and treatments while removing barriers to seeking help and increasing awareness, we can improve the quality of life for individuals affected by insomnia and contribute to a healthier sleep society.

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